Design

Recently, I was invited to view a newly-constructed 60 ft. by 36 ft. barn, with homemade big timber trusses as follows: 36 ft. span, 12/9 pitch, construction was 26 ft. 2x12 rafters, bracing 2x6, ceiling joists were 36 ft. boxed, 6x12 out of overlapping (6 ft.), 2x12 glued and nailed center, 16 feet of joist doubled as an 8 ft. high loft, floor trusses were on 12 ft. centers atop posts deeply anchored with good footings, roof and wall cross ties were 2x6 on edge every 24 in., floor cross ties in the loft were 2x8 on edge every 16 in., 4 ft. snow load.

As an engineer, I have noticed truss designers in some high wind states routinely using “Main Wind-Force Resisting Systems” wind pressure coefficients as opposed to “Components and Cladding” coefficients to design for wind uplift. A roof truss is not a main wind-force resisting system and would have to have a tributary area of more than 1000 sq. ft. before qualifying for the lower Primary Frame coefficients. In my experience this practice is routine.

Can I safely install 3/4 in. T&G, OSB on 2x4 trusses that are 24 in. O.C.? My roof was installed over 5/8 in. plywood without clips that have caused a lot of sagging and the shingles need replacing. I want to “fix” it one time and install architecture type shingles, but the garage is 24 ft. wide and 28 ft. long without any load bearing walls. My concern is the weight on the trusses. 5/8 in. plywood weighs 52 lbs. and the OSB weighs 78 lbs. for each 4 ft. x 8 ft. sheet. The roof will require about 84 4 ft. x 8 ft. sheets to cover, which equals about 2,184 lbs.

I am a building inspector and have some questions regarding how to apply IBC 2012 2308.8.5 (IRC 2012 R802.8) (similar IBC 2015 2308.4.6 & IRC 2015 R802.8) to trusses, especially those with high heels:

I'm looking for a book that will provide formulas and design criteria for trusses. Can you give me any suggestions of where to find a book or fairly inexpensive software?

What is the recommended standard spacing for open-web wood joists? I have seen them placed 24 in. O.C. Is this acceptable for a customer who will have an exercise room with 500 pounds of free weights? I understand there are problems with bouncy floors with 24 in. spacing. Is this true?

In a hip roof application where jack trusses connect to a girder truss using pressure blocking (power blocking), what is the proper installation and the span that is acceptable before a hanger is required?

Do you have open web floor truss span tables available?

Occasionally we deal with truss failures due to impact and or crushing forces such as trees falling onto roof structures. At what point can the truss no longer be repaired? Also, what should an adjuster look for when determining repair-ability? Or should a storm adjuster basically punt and call a consultant for every truss failure?

Are there any schematics available on how to horizontally brace a 7/12 pitch roof?